You should be able to open teams with run command
Almost all Office apps can be called using the run command in Windows ( windows key + R). Eg. you can use winword to open word; excel for excel, powerpnt for powerpnt.
However, I cannot figure out how to call teams in an efficient manner there. Since the executable is called Teams.exe, I supposed it should be just typing teams there to launch the program.
copy your Teams desktop shortcut to C:\Windows\System32 folder and rename it to whatever the name you want (team or teams..etc). then open run and typethe name you provided. (team or teams...)